Recovering of Taiwan by Zheng Chenggong, Eoconomic and Culture Development of Taiwan
①In 1620, Yan Siqi from Haicheng, and Zheng Zhilong from Quanzhou, Fujian Province, in defiance of official oppression, migrated to Taiwan, bringing with them a huge numbers of people aboard 13 ships. They landed at present-day Jiayi on Taiwan's central coastline, where they built ten forts, and lived by farming and fishing. In 1628, at Zheng Zhilong's suggestion, the governor of Fujian commenced planned migration of famine victims to Taiwan. Tens of thousands, each given three taels of silver and one ox between three, arrived on Taiwan to open up and cultivate its wasteland. This was the first planned, large-scale migration from the mainland to Taiwan, which contributed greatly to its later development.
②In 1604, during the Wanli reign of the Ming Dynasty, the Dutch East India Company's fleet invaded and occupied Penghu. They were expelled by the end of the year, but returned in 1622, taking Penghu and building a castle there. In 1624 the Dutch were again driven out by the Ming troops, and their castle destroyed. The Dutch then went north to build Fort Zeelandia, their trading post, at Taiyu Bay (present-day Anping in Tainan).
③ In 1626, the Spanish invaded northern Taiwan and occupied Keelung. They took Danshuei the following year.
④In 1642, the Dutch drove the Spanish out of Taiwan, and occupied Keelung and Danshuei. In 1653 the Dutch built Fort Providentia and began trading with the mainland.
In 1620, Yan Siqi from Haicheng, and Zheng Zhilong from Quanzhou, Fujian Province, in defiance of official oppression, migrated to Taiwan, bringing with them huge numbers of people aboard 13 ships. They landed at Northern Port (present-day Jiayi) on the central Taiwan coastline, where they built ten forts, and lived by farming and fishing. In 1628, Zheng Zhilong accepted amnesty from the emperor. At this time, Fujian had been stricken by a severe drought, and, at Zheng's suggestion, the governor of Fujian expedited planned migration of famine victims to Taiwan. Tens of thousands were each given three taels of silver, and one ox between three, and arrived in Taiwan to open up and cultivate its wasteland. This was the first planned mass migration from the mainland to Taiwan, which contributed greatly to its later development.
In 1624, the Dutch invaded and occupied southern Taiwan, and in 1626, the Spanish invaded and occupied northern Taiwan. The Dutch subsequently drove the Spanish out of northern Taiwan and colonized the entire island in 1642. The Dutch carried out systematic economic plunder of the island, seized all its land and claimed it on behalf of the Dutch East India Company. The people of Taiwan were forced to work on the "King's Field" under a feudal serf system.
In February 1662, the Ming general Zheng Chenggong, who was against the rule of the Qing, liberated Taiwan from the Dutch, who had been in occupation for 38 years, and implemented new policies to promote development of the island. He encouraged people from the mainland to migrate to Taiwan, stressed the need for land cultivation, forest preservation, irrigation construction, trade development, education, Confucian doctrine, and the promotion of
government officials through imperial examinations. During Zheng's reign,
120,000 to 150,000 troops and civilians from the mainland migrated to Taiwan. This was the second large-scale mainland migration to Taiwan, migrants being mostly Han Chinese, who from that time onwards constituted the main body of Taiwan's population, and contributed to a period of rapid economic and cultural development on the island.
Zheng Chenggong's Marine Battles to Regain Taiwan
On April 21, 1661, 200-strong warships carrying 25,000 troops, led by Zheng Chenggong, left Liaoluo Bay, Quemoy for Taiwan. They arrived in Penghu the next day. On April 29, Zheng's army headed for Taiwan, braving strong winds and high seas, and the following day they launched a sudden attack on Lu'ermen. Part of Zheng's troops prepared to fight the Dutch from Beixianwei,while the main force landed at Heliao the same night. On May 1, Zheng's army defeated three divisions of Dutch troops, on land and at sea, sinking the Dutch ship Hector and killing more than 160 Dutch soldiers at Beixianwei. On the May 4, Zheng's troops captured Fort Providentia. The next day, he deployed troops to take Fort Providentia (City of Taiwan). Zheng's army began its attack on May 26, and laid siege to the fort. On September 16, Zheng's troops defeated Dutch reinforcements - more than 700 men on ten ships or more -- from Batavia. On the January 25, 1662, Zheng's army captured Fort Fort Ronduitutreecht. On the 1st February, the Dutch administrator of Taiwan, Fredreick Coyett, signed the deed of surrender. Taiwan was thus reunited with the motherland.