Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and the Chinese government have all along regarded it as a sacred historic mission to realize the reunification of the mainland and Taiwan, and have in good time worked out, implemented and developed the Taiwan policy in accordance with changes of international and domestic situation. Toms up, the adjustment and change of the Chinese party and government’s policy towards Taiwan underwent two periods of “liberation of Taiwan” and “peaceful reunification”, with the 3 re plenum of the 11th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China in December 1978 as the dividing line.
Adjustment of the Policy of “Liberating Taiwan by Force”
The successive victories in Liaoning-Shenyang, Huaihai, and Beiping-Tianjin Campaigns from September 1948 to January 1949, made the Kuomintang government’s defeat an inevitable outcome. The Central Committee of the CCP reckoned that the last place of refuge for the Kuomintang was Taiwan. Hence, in order to liberate the whole country and fulfill the mission of China’s new-democratic revolution, the CCP made the strategic plan of “liberating Taiwan”. On March 15,1949,the Inhaul News Agency published a commentary entitled “the Chinese people must liberate Taiwan”, and first put forward the slogan of “liberating Taiwan”.
After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the CCP and the Chinese government strengthened military deployment and set up a frontline command post. But owing to the outbreak of the Korean War, the entry of the Seventh Fleet of the U.S navy into the Taiwan Straits and the stationing of the U.S. 13th air unit in Taiwan, the plan of liberating Taiwan was laid aside.
When the Korean War was over in July 1953,the Taiwan authorities began to speed up the step to sign the “Joint Defense Treaty” with the U.S. In July 1954, the CCP and the Chinese government put forward again the task of liberating Taiwan and did not tolerate the military interference and occulting of Taiwan by the U.S. The People’s Liberation Army of China began to bombard Junkmen on September 3 (the so called “the first crisis of the Taiwan Strait”). However, the U.S. government signed the “Joint Defense Treaty” with the Chinned Kai-sheik clique, putting Taiwan and Penh islands under the “protection” of the U.S.and blocking China’s reunification. Hence, on Devember8, Premier Shout Inlay issued a statement and pointed out that the so called” Joint Defense Treaty” was basically “illegal and invalid”, emphasized that day claim of “an independent country” of Taiwan, Taiwan’s “neutralization” and the “trusteeship” of Taiwan was virtually to divide China’s territory, infringe on China’s sovereignty and interfere in China’s internal affairs, which absolutely could not be accepted by the Chinese people. He noted that the Chinese people must liberate Taiwan, realize the reunification of the country. From January to February 1955,the People’s Liberation Army launched the cross-straits campaign, liberating Yijingshan Island and Dachen Island.
After the Dachen Island Campaign was over, the battles for offshore islands between the CCP and the Kuomintang almost came to an end and the military confrontation somewhat eased. In view of U.S.intervention of Taiwan affairs and the emerging trend of complication and internationalization of the Taiwan question, the CCP shifted in time its polices towards the U.S. and Taiwan and put forward the proposition of “peaceful liberation of Taiwan”.